Great Works, 1989 (photo by Wendy Pirsig)Great Works, 1989 

In July 1634, William Chadbourne, James Wall and John Goddard, three English carpenters under contract with Capt. John Mason's Laconia Company, arrived in present-day South Berwick, Maine, from England aboard the vessel "Pied Cow." Their contract called for them to build a saw mill and grist mill on on what was then called the Asbenbedick or Little Newichawannock River. (Source: The Chadbourne Family in America: A Genealogy, 1994, compiled by Elaine C. Bacon for The Chadbourne Family Association, and edited by Deborah L. Chadbourne).

The sawmill they built, thought to be the first over-shot water-powered site in America, was located in the "Rocky Gorge" below the Great Works bridge on today's Brattle Street.

    By Rick Coughlin and Norma Keim, Old Berwick Historical Society, November 18, 2004

“. . . Cometh Down to ye Great mill workes” (Patience Spencer deed, 1682)

    1621 Attempts to build saw mills in Virginia on James River
    1624 Twentieth century sign at Great Works claims first sawmills in America built here on this date

1631 Model of a saw-mill sent to Newichawannock on ship Pied Cow (from original letter from Thomas Eyre of the Company of Laconia to Ambrose Gibbons, London, the last of May 1631)

   1634 Capt. John Mason’s three carpenters begin building a saw mill and a grist mill at Newichawannock, but where in Newichawannock -- “smalle falls” or “steepe falls?”
    1638 Mason has died; mills fall into disrepair; materials pilfered, mill eventually burns
    1651 Town of Kittery grants Richard Leader mill privilege at the “steepe” falls; Town also grants Thomas Spencer and Humphrey Chadbourne tree allotments and the right of free passage for the bringing of timber down the little River unto their mill
    1651-1652 Leader brings with him from Saugus Ironworks a number of Scottish “servants” captured at the Battle of Dunbar and exiled

 Pipe Stave LandingSouth Berwick Maritime History

"Not a creek but ships are building in it; not a river’s mouth so small, but merchants’ companies are there in possession of ships; no situation where a mill could stand on, on which there has not been a mill erected."
    -- Description of Berwick area, La Rochefoucalt-Liancourt, 1795. 

For almost 150 years before the construction of the Hamilton House, Salmon Falls River sawmills processed timber for the English merchant ships and navy. One byproduct of the mast production was large quantities of material for making wooden barrels. “Pipe staves,” as these wooden barrel components were called, became one of the major exports of the South Berwick area and the whole Piscataqua. Wooden barrels were the most common containers of their day, used for liquids, for commodities like flour and sugar, and for the wine and rum of Europe and the West Indies. Pipe staves were vital for products and markets of the slavery-based economies of the Caribbean that provided wealth to much of the Berwick region.

Partial list of sailing ships built 1700-1847 in today’s South Berwick, Maine and Rollinsford, New Hampshire
    c. 1703 - Sloop Eagle of Boston built at Berwick, Benjamin Jeffry, Master, found in register of vessels, May 20, 1703 (Source: Volume 7, p. 222 of the Massachusetts Archives Collection)

    1769 - Ship - David Moore, builder, Berwick. Joseph Field of Kittery, shipwright. Supply Clapp of Portsmouth, owner.

    1769 - Brig Laurel - Set sail for Barnstable.

    1770 - Brig Greyhound - James Garvin, Jr., master, Rollinsford. Set sail for the West Indies. Lost at sea.

The Launch of the Berwick:  A Memory of Seventy years Ago.
by John Marr, Rochester, N.Y.
(From Old Eliot, Vol. IV, No. I (January, 1901) pp. 42-43)


BW Hamilton House

Old Eliot is very interesting, and recalls many persons whom I knew, and names familiar in my boyhood.

No event has a more prominent place in my memory than the Launch of the Berwick. This ship was built by Capt. Hanscom in 1832, at the lower-landing in South Berwick, a few rods north of the old Hamilton House, as seen in Miss Jewett’s "Old Town of Berwick."
At the launching of the Berwick I was sprinkled with wine from the bottle broken by Capt. Hanscom in christening the ship. Once I could repeat his eulogy; but my memory retains now but two lines:

    Her timbers were taken from Agementicus broad back,
    So firmly joined that Old Ocean can’t wrack!

    Old Ocean, however, did wrack, for she went down in mid-ocean, in 1833-4, with all on board. I was then ten years old, and the oft-repeated story of her supposed disaster, made a deep impression upon my mind.

    The Berwick was built by Capt. Theodore Jewett, expressly for his son, young Capt. Thode, as the town’s people called him. Tim Ferguson may have had an interest in her. I was present when the young Captain said good-bye to his father, and left for Portsmouth to take command of his new ship.
Samuel Jewett grave    The fate of the Berwick has never been definitely demonstrated. The Master of a home-bound ship, reported that in a certain latitude he encountered a gale; about midnight an unusually high wave struck him as he was running free ; and when his ship fell, she struck a ship as it was sailing upon an opposite course. The next wave carried him completely over the ill-fated stranger.

    The course of the Berwick, so often sailed over by the elder Capt. Theodore, and his knowledge of the usual winds and tides, impressed him with the belief that the Berwick must have been in the latitude described. Time passed without any tidings of his boy; he lost all hope ; the luster faded from his mild blue eyes. I think of him sitting in his favorite slat-back chair tilted against the counter of his store, toying the fobchain and seals that hung by his side, dreamily waiting the coming of the great night that should give him rest forever! God bless my memory of his many kind words and acts to a poor boy!

Capt. Samuel Jewett, not Theodore, was the master of the Berwick when the vessel was lost at sea in 1846.  This monument to Capt. Theodore F. Jewett's fourth son, age 23, was erected in Portland Street Cemetery by the Odd Fellows of South Berwick.  

Note:  This account is also published in Tall Ships of the Piscataqua, p. 18.  There are a few points respecting the accuracy of John Marr's recollection.  The ship was built at the yard of T.F. & T. Jewett at Pipe Stave Landing in 1832.  The insurance records for the Berwick  are included in an account book of Theodore Jewett at the Maine Maritime Museum, where it is noted that the new ship Berwick sailed from Portsmouth on her first voyage February 8, 1833.  The ship did not go down in 1833-34, as Marr claims, but sailed for 13 years.  Her sad fate is recorded in a newspaper account of the period.  Theodore's 23-year-old son Samuel Walker Jewett was the captain in 1846--not Theodore Jr., as Marr says (Theodore F. Jewett was 18 when the ship was launched and may have been its first captain).  The ship was insured in January 1846 for voyages to and from Boston and Calcutta via Mauritius (off the coast of Madagascar).   She left Boston on February 3, 1846 with a cargo of ice and spars and was lost at sea.  The tragedy is recorded in a simple notation in the account book:  "Paid by loss March 6, 1847."   Theodore had five sons, and only two of them outlived him--William and Theodore.  The Odd Fellows Club of South Berwick erected a monument to Samuel that still stands at Portland Street Cemetery. -- Old Berwick Historical Society




The Landing Mill and Its Time by Annie Wentworth Baer
March 1914

The MillOriginal manuscripts of essays by Annie Wentworth Baer are at the Woodman Museum, Dover , New Hampshire .

According to the History of Strafford County , 1914, Baer was born in South Berwick and was the daughter of Lorenzo Stackpole.  He seems to have worked at the Portsmouth Manufacturing Company, and thus may have provided Baer with first-hand information for this essay.

In 1643 when Sagamore Rowles sold to Humphrey Chadbourne a half mile of ground which lieth betwixt the little river (the Great Works) and the Great river he reserved for himself a parcel of ground called Quamphegan. This land was between the Salmon Falls brook, now known as Hog Point brook, and the Great river, and beyond the Great river. The River was the red man’s highway. 

Gilpatrick House at 100 Main St.110 Main Street, 6 Vine Street, 21 Liberty Street

    The Davis and Gilpatric families crafted tinware and sold stoves at both the Landing and downtown South Berwick throughout the 1800s. The partnership of Gilpatric and Davis tinsmiths are mentioned in the 1820-1831 journal of Maj. Thomas Leigh.

Mill Operators Listed in Great Works Area (South Berwick Town Register 1904 Census)

John H. Drury (superintendent of woolen mill)
Benjamin W. Allen of Brattle Street
Frank Beaven of High Street and Alice M. Beaven
Roscoe A. Besse
Alvin Carpenter of Brattle Street
Augustus E. Crittenden of Brattle Street and Joseph B. and Lizzie A.
William H. Carpenter, blanket manufacturing, and Josie M.

Fire Wards and Tub Trucks

 "The people were soon on the streets, both old and young, screaming at the top of their voices, 'Fire! Fire!'-- but where, they knew not.  The church bells joined the factory bell, imploring both saint and sinner to hasten to the scene of destruction, before our quiet and beautiful little village and its inhabitants were destroyed....

"The factory fire engine Piscataqua, which was in the factory yard, was started to the scene of the fire by about one dozen of Quamphegan's craziest citizens, but the building was in ashes before it got half way; so eager were the parties hauling it to see the fire, they left it by the roadside while they took across the fields to be in time to go home with the crowd, which came from far and near..."

        -- Account of a house fire near today's Liberty Street, South Berwick, 1835, by George Washington Frosst.

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