Journeys Hike Museum Program:
Changing Landscapes
The Changing Landscapes program is designed to prepare third graders for participation and leadership in the Hike through History by introducing the tour theme of Journeys and examining the changes that occurred in both the land and the people of South Berwick throughout the past four centuries.
During this visit to the Counting House Museum, third-grade students will learn about the changing landscape of South Berwick by participating in an engaging room-scale Map Activity in which they organize and place objects on a large-format rug map showing the confluence of local rivers. Three periods in local history will be studied: the Native Americans, the Colonists, and the Industrialists. Students will act as history detectives and will make inferences about the three periods by listening to sound recordings representing different centuries and by examining artifacts of the type used by people who settled and journeyed out from here.
Students will deepen their understanding of time sequence by using a room-length timeline to help them visualize a historical chronology. They will learn about changing populations by participating in a “living” Timeline Activity in which they organize and place both themselves (using an historic identity card) and an object associated with their historical character on a timeline. Students will be explore their historical identities and associated artifacts and will then be responsible for presenting this information to their classmates.
The third graders will be using information learned on their museum visit when they plan preteaching lessons to prepare first and second graders for the Journeys Hike.
Journeys: Counting House Museum Program
Program Objectives:
After visiting the Counting House Museum and completing the activities in this guide, the students will be able to:
 Identify the three eras of local settlement and explain their importance to South Berwick : Native Americans, Colonists, and Industrialists.
 Understand the people who came, why they came and how they came to South Berwick throughout the centuries.
 Use a timeline to demonstrate their knowledge of the chronology of important events and the use of artifacts in local history.
 Describe how the people who lived here impacted and changed the landscape and how these changes affect us today. (location of the center of town)
 Use museum resources (photographs, maps, drawings, artifacts, etc.) to compare and contrast their world to the three eras presented in these activities.
 Make connections to A River Ran Wild by Lynne Cherry and understand the importance of stewardship of an environment.
Program Activities:
Changing Landscapes Activity:
Theme: Throughout the last four centuries, people came to South Berwick and transformed both the natural landscape and the built environment.
Description of Activity:
Students will learn about the changing landscape of South Berwick by participating in a map activity in which they organize and place objects on the map according to the era being discussed. They will also make interpretations about the eras by listening to sounds and examining artifacts that have been chosen to deepen their understanding of the settling of South Berwick.
Introduction: 5 minutes
Students sit around the sides of a large floor map that depicts South Berwick’s basic landscape and has a timeline spanning four centuries along the edges. The volunteer will introduce the map to the students and will name the major rivers and landscape features. Together, they will find where they are today on the map.
Native Americans:
Possible objects: trees (to scale), dried corn, fish, elk, bear, deer, wigwam, bark canoe, images of Native Americans
Essential Questions:
Where are we in time? (Put a marker on the appropriate place on the timeline.)
Who came here then?
Why did they come here?
How did they get here?
What happened to them?
How did they impact the landscape?
Students will be introduced to the world that existed when the Native Americans lived on the land. Using information gleaned from reports from the first settlers and explorers, students will learn about the abundant wildlife, the use of rivers and how the Indians farmed the land to grow their three staple crops – corn, squash, and beans.
Students will work in small groups. They will be given several items that represent important elements of the era to place on the map. As a group, they will decide where the objects belong on the map and will be able to justify their decisions to the group. They will also be given artifacts/objects that are significant to this era. They will use different thinking skills to classify, identify, and understand the importance of the items.
Throughout this activity, the groups will practice thinking like historians and will complete each task in their “Historians’ Log”. The log will be collected at the end of the activity so we can check for understanding.
Colonist:
Possible objects and artifacts: farm house/barn, apple, cow, horse, stone wall, plow, logs, tools of local trades, images of people or other significant items or places
Essential Questions:
Where are we in time? (Put a marker on the appropriate place on the timeline.)
Who came here then?
Why did they come here?
How did they get here?
What happened to them?
How did they impact the landscape?
Students will be introduced to the world of the first generations of non-Native setters who lived on this land. Again, working in small groups, they will make decisions about where to place the objects on the map. They will make comparisons between the two eras and Native American features that are no longer relevant will be removed from the map. They will also be given artifacts/objects that are significant to this era. They will use different thinking skills to classify, identify, and understand the importance of the items.
Throughout this activity, the groups will practice thinking like historians and will complete each task in their “Historians’ Log”.
Industrialist:
Before this segment follows the previous designs, the group leader will provided students with a two minute overview of the industrial revolution and a three page reading from the industrial portion of A River Ran Wild.
Possible objects and artifacts: factories, boarding houses, trains, public buildings, houses, clock tower, dam, turbine, canals
Essential Questions:
Where are we in time? (Put a marker on the appropriate place on the timeline.)
Who came here then?
Why did they come here?
How did they get here?
What happened to them?
How did they impact the landscape?
Students will be introduced to the world of the Industrialists who lived on this land during much of the 19th century. Again, working in small groups, they will make decisions about where to place the important objects on the map. They will make comparisons between the two previous eras and will remove items that are no longer relevant. They will also be given artifacts/objects that are significant to this era. They will use different thinking skills to classify, identify, and understand the importance of the items.
Throughout this activity, the groups will practice thinking like historians and will complete each task in their “Historians’ Log”.
Conclusion:
The group leader will ask a series of questions designed to deepen the children’s understanding of the information presented to them during the activity.
 During each era, why did people come here and how did they change the landscape?
 What was gained? What was lost?
 What were the benefits? What were the costs of each era?
 How do you think the era that we live in is benefitting the land? How does it negatively impact the land? What can we do to help the land?
A River Ran Wild: Pre-Visit Reading Activities
A River Ran Wild by Lynne Cherry captures the changes that took place in New England from the time of Native American occupation through the Industrial Revolution. Read this book aloud to students as a springboard for discussion about changes in population, land use, and the environment over 300 years.
Background
This book tells the story of the Nashua River Valley through time. Beginning when the area was inhabited only by Native Americans, the story chronicles changing settlement patterns, from early colonization before the American Revolution, to after 1840 as urbanization and industrialization increased. The book illustrates the effects of residential and industrial development on the landscape of New England.
Activity Choices:
1. Read the story to students, pointing out passages that contain figurative language and sensory details such as those in the following passage: "The Nashua was dark and dirty. The Nashua was slowly dying." Choose passages that reflect the three different time periods: (1) when the Native Americans first lived there, (2) colonization along the river, (3) industrialization and mills along the river. Write these three passages for the whole class to view or have students write them individually. As a class, discuss the effect of the imagery on the students. Distribute large art paper to each student. Have students divide the paper into three sections by folding. Refer students to the three passages they have written. Ask students to draw an illustration that captures their interpretation of each passage.
2. Focusing on the three eras (1600s, 1700s, 1800s), discuss the changes that occurred throughout the history of the river in this story.
3. Discuss the different attitudes that the Indians and the colonists had toward stewardship of the land and what each of these approaches to land use meant for the environment. What is valuable in each approach, and what are the consequences of adopting that approach?
4. Working in teams of three or four, have students complete a Cause and Effect Graphic Organizer in which they highlight the major events in the history of the river valley.
5. Imagine you lived during the 1600s when European settlers first arrived at Nashaway. You are a farmer growing corn, wheat, and potatoes and keeping a small herd of dairy cows. What can you say to Nashawhonan (called Sholan), the local sachem (chief) of the Nashaway tribe, to convince him to sell you more land along the river?
6. Imagine you live along the Nashua River during the era of industrialization in the early 1800s. Use your five senses to describe what happened to the river when textile mills started dumping waste dyes, soaps and fibers into the water.
Word Study: quench, pulp, grist, Industrial Revolution
Journeys Hike Museum Program
Changing Landscapes: Map Activity
Map Activity: 50 minutes
Theme: Over the past four centuries, people journeyed to South Berwick and transformed both the natural landscape and the built environment.
Description of Activity:
Students will learn about the changing landscape of South Berwick by participating in a map activity in which they organize and place objects on a floor-size map to explore changes in the built environment over 400 years. They will also make inferences about the impact of settlement on the land by listening to sounds and examining a set of three illustrations tied to the periods of focus for this program: Native Americans, Colonists, and Industrialists.
Materials and Supplies:
Timer and bell Box of Animal figures
Historian’s Logs (on clipboards) Box of Building models
Historian’s Log Answer Key Sound Track and playing device
Pencils Photo enlargements (4 sets of 3 illustrations)
Introduction: 5 minutes
Students will divide into four groups (predetermined by the teacher) when they arrive. They will sit around the brown border of a large rug floor map that depicts South Berwick’s basic landscape. The volunteer will introduce the map to the students and will name the major rivers and landscape features. With assistance from the volunteer, students will identify where they are on the map and place two yellow landmarks, Central School and the Counting House Museum, on the map.
Narration:
Today you will be learning about the history of the land, the rivers and the people of South Berwick. Over the past 400 years, the people who came here changed both the landscape and the built environment to meet their needs. This map that we are sitting around represents the area that is now South Berwick. We will use it to help us imagine what life was like on this land in past centuries. We’re going to place two important landmarks, Central School and the Counting House Museum, on the map to help you identify where you are as we travel through the centuries. They are painted yellow to remind you that they are your landmarks. We’re also going to add some trees to the map that will represent the forests that were here. Where would trees grow? (Have volunteer place trees on map.)
Who can tell me what names these two rivers are known by today?
Point out the Salmon Falls River and the Great Works River. Point out several landmarks to help students get oriented (Vaughan Woods/Hamilton House, Leigh’s Mill Pond, Counting House Museum, Central School)
During this activity, we’ll be searching for the answers to several questions: Who came here? Why did they travel here? How did they affect the landscape where they lived?
You have an important job to perform during this activity. You will be playing the role of a historian and using a historian’s reasoning skills to learn about different times in South Berwick’s history. You will need to use your powers of observation, careful listening, and deductive reasoning. Let’s get started! Here’s your log, clipboard, and pencil. Choose one person to be the recorder.
Native Americans: 15 mins
Activity Summary: Students will be introduced to the world that existed when the Native Americans lived on the land. Students will learn about the abundant wildlife, the use of rivers and how the Indians farmed the land to grow their crops.
Students will work in small groups. Hand out a basket of items to each group that represent important elements of the era to place on the map. As a group, they will decide where the objects belong on the map and will be able to justify their decisions to the group. They will also be given a picture to analyze that is significant to this era.
Throughout this activity, the groups will practice thinking like historians and will complete each task in their “Historians’ Logs”. Students will use these as resources for their pre-teaching lessons for the first and second graders. The logs will be collected at the end of the activity and given to the classroom teachers.
Essential Questions:
Where are we in time? (Put a marker on the appropriate place on the timeline border.)
Who came here then?
Where did they settle? (Where was the center of town at this time?)
Why did they come here?
What happened to them?
How did they impact the landscape?
Objects: Wigwams, longhouse, canoe (brown models); trees, moose, bear, deer, otter, beaver, fox, wolf; illustration of Native American village from A River Ran Wild; sign blocks (Newichawannock, Asbenbedick, Quamphegan, Province of Maine, 1600)
Narration:
1. Where are we in time? We are in the 1600s. That is 400 hundred years ago! (Place the 1600 marker in front of you on the rug.)
2. Let’s use our historian skills to determine who came here and why they came. Listen carefully to the sounds that you are about to hear. These are sounds that you would have heard if you had lived here in the 1600s. When the recording is over, working in your small group, write down three sounds that you heard in your historian’s log. You will have about a minute to do this. Don’t worry if you forget some sounds. (Play recording and then ask: As a group, using clues based on what you heard, decide Who came here in the 1600s?
(Using the Answer Key, read the list of sounds from the recording. Native Americans is the correct answer.)
3. Now you’ll be using your powers of observation to look at a picture of a Native American village and see if you can decide Where did they settle? and Why did they come here? Fill in your chart to answer these two questions. Look closely at the picture for clues. If you don’t have enough time to write, just wait for the discussion. (Hand out the Native American illustration to each group and give them two minutes to work.)
(Using the Answer Key, discuss their answers.)
You can ask these questions to help the students focus during the discussion:
 What is happening in this picture that would make people want to live here?
 Are there any clues in the picture that show how they got here?
 Where did they live?
4. Now, as historians, you’ve already learned a lot about Native Americans and how they lived on the land here. Using the objects that I hand out to you, as a group, decide where the objects belong on the map. Be prepared to put them in the best spot you can identify and tell us why you picked that spot. Each one of you will get a chance to put objects on the map. (Give a basket of objects to each group and give them one minute to plan where they should locate their objects.)
One student at a time from each group will place buildings on the map in the correct places. Then have one student from each group place animals on the map. Comment on placement as objects are located. See attached key for correct placement. Make any corrections and place the Native American village near Newichawannock.
5. The last two things that we want to know about the Native Americans is What happened to them? and How did they impact the landscape? Listen carefully as I tell you what happened here late in the 1600s.
“What happened to the Wabanaki village at Quamphegan? For nearly 50 years, the Wabanaki lived and traded among the newcomers. But in the late 1600s, war broke out. Both English and Natives were killed and taken captive. When the wars ceased in the early 1700s, the English claimed the land they had first occupied a century before. Some Native families continued to come to here in the spring for fishing and planting, but most joined other tribes further inland or in Canada. Quamphegan was no longer a Native village.”
Give them one minute to finish filling in their logs to answer the question “How did they impact the land?”
Colonists: 10 mins
Activity Summary:
Students will be introduced to the world of the first generations of European setters who lived on this land. Again, working in small groups, they will make decisions about where to place the objects on the map. They will make comparisons between the two historical periods, and Native American features that no longer existed through the 1700s will be removed from the map.
Essential Questions:
Where are we in time? (Put a marker on the appropriate place on the timeline border.)
Who came here then?
Where did they settle? (Where was the center of town at this time?)
Why did they come here?
What happened to them?
How did they impact the landscape?
Objects: Farm houses, barns, sawmill (white models), bridge, stone walls; cow, horse, pigs, sheep and lamb, chicken and chicks; illustration of Colonial farm from A River Ran Wild; sign blocks (Salmon Falls River, Great Works River, Berwick, District of Maine, 1700)
Narration:
1. Where are we in time? We are in the 1700s. (Place the 1700 marker in front of you on the rug.)
2. Let’s use our historian skills to determine who came here and why they came. Listen carefully to the sounds that you are about to hear. When the recording is over, with your small group, write down three sounds that you heard in your log. As a group, using clues based on what you heard, decide Who came here in the 1700s?
(* While they’re listening to the sounds, collect all of the objects except deer, moose, bear, fox, and small trees from the rug.)
Using the Answer Key, read the sounds that were heard and tell them that “the colonists” is the correct answer to the question.
3. Now you’ll be using your powers of observation to look at a picture of a farm from Colonial times and see if you can decide Why they came here and Where they lived. Fill in your chart to answer these questions.
Using the Answer Key, discuss their answers. Use these questions to encourage thoughtful discussion:
 What is happening in this picture that would make people want to live here?
 Are there any clues in the picture that show how they got here?
 Where did they live?
4. Now, as historians, we’ve learned something about Colonists and how they lived on the land here. Using the objects that I hand out to you, decide as a group where the objects belong on the map. Be prepared to put them in the best spot you can identify and tell us why you picked that spot. Each one of you will get a chance to put objects on the map. (Give a basket of objects to each group and give them one minute to plan where they should locate their objects.)
One student at a time from each group will place buildings on the map in the correct places. Then have one student from each group place animals on the map. Comment on placement as objects are located. See attached key for correct placement. Make any necessary corrections and place the village center at the Landing, with a mill and bridge located there.
5. The last two things that you need to know about the Colonists who lived here during the 1700s is What happened to them? and How did they impact the landscape? Listen carefully as I tell you what happened in the late 1700s when the colonies became the United States.
6. We’ve been talking about how Native Americans and Colonists used the land differently. Listen for clues in the next segment about how the Industrialists used the land and its resources.
Industrialists: 15 mins
Activity Summary: Before this segment begins, the group leader will provide students with a two-minute overview of the Industrial Revolution and its effect on the town’s population and the built environment.
Students will be introduced to the world of the industrialists who lived on this land during much of the 19th century. Again, working in small groups, they will make decisions about where to place the important objects on the map. They will make comparisons between the two previous eras and will remove items that are no longer relevant.
Throughout this activity, students will practice thinking like historians and will complete each task in the historian’s log.
Essential Questions:
Where are we in time? (Put a marker on the appropriate place on the timeline border.)
Who came here then?
Where did they settle? (Where was the center of town at this time?)
Why did they come here?
What happened to them?
How did they impact the landscape?
Objects: Factories, boarding houses, shops, church (red models), train; illustration of Industrial mill buildings from A River Ran Wild; sign blocks (South Berwick, State of Maine, 1800)
Narration:
1. Where are we in time? We have arrived in the 1800s and there are about to be BIG changes to the landscape of South Berwick! (Place the 1800 marker in front of you on the rug.) Waterfalls on the rivers were harnessed to power mill machinery. Farm fields and orchards, like those at the Plains, were converted into a neighborhood of company boarding houses for workers. South Berwick alone had three large factories. Let us show you how they changed the town.
Place large factory models (SFMC, PMC, Cummings)in appropriate locations.
2. Now listen to sounds that you would recognize if you had lived in South Berwick in the 1800s, when this town had mills and factories making shoes and cloth and lumber. When the recording is over, note the sounds in your historian’s log. Decide Who came here in the 1800s? and Why did they come?
Note: While students are listening to the sounds, collect objects from the rug.
Using the Answer Key, read the sounds that were heard and tell them that “the Industrialists” is the correct answer.
3. Use your powers of observation to look at a picture of a New England mill town and see if you can decide Why they came here and Where they lived. If you have time, fill in your chart to answer these questions. It’s more important that you spend your time looking at the picture for clues, so if you don’t have enough time to write, just wait for the discussion.
You can ask these questions to help the students focus on the picture:
 What is happening in this picture that would make people want to live here?
 Are there any clues in the picture that show how they got here?
 Where did they live?
Using the Answer Key, discuss their answers briefly.
4. Now let’s use the models that I hand out to you to see the changes that occurred in our town when factories were built. As a group, decide where the objects belong on the map. Be prepared to put them in the best spot you can identify and tell us why you picked that spot.
(Hand out objects to each group.)
One at a time, have students place objects on the map in the correct places. Comment on placement as objects are placed. See attached Answer Key for correct placement.
5. So, What happened to the Industrialists? and How did they impact the landscape? When you hear the answers to those questions, silently raise your hand and wait to write it down in your historian’s log when I’m finished.
Conclusion: 5 mins
1. Over the past 400 years, the people who came here changed both the landscape and the built environment to meet their needs. Some groups had very little impact on the land while others had a great deal. As historians, what do you think?
 What were the benefits of each era? What were the costs?
 Why are people still journeying to make South Berwick their home? Who is coming here today? Where do they live?
2. As we finish this activity, we want you to understand that every century brings changes – some that are good for the land and the people and some that are not. Now if you close your eyes, you can hear the sounds that your grandparents and great-grandparents would have heard in the early 1900’s. Listen carefully to see if you can identify any of these sounds that we don’t hear very often anymore…
Answers: Trolley, old automobile horn, dogs barking, bicycle bell, telephone, telephone operator, typewriter, construction site noises, ragtime piano, Scott Joplin’s “The Entertainer”
3. Now we’re going to move to the next activity. Please stand quietly, hand your Historian’s Logs to me, and find a seat on the benches.
Changing Landscapes: Historian’s Log Answer Sheet
TIME
1600s
1700s
1800s
WHO came here?
Native Americans
Colonists
Industrialists
WHERE did they settle?
Newichawannock
The Landing
The Village
What did you HEAR?
(List 3 sounds)
Rushing water, Birds,
Wind in trees,
Black bear, moose, wolves
Two Wabanaki songs
Water wheel, Tree being felled,
Up and down sawmill,
Chickens, sheep,
Horse, cows, oxen plowing,
“Money Musk” fiddle song
Water over the dam,
Factory bells, Power looms,
Horse & carriage, Steam train,
Hymn “We Plough the Fields and Scatter”
What did you OBSERVE?
(List 3 features of the landscape)
Native Americans, canoe building, grinding corn, cooking fish, husking corn, weaving rush mats, fishing, growing squash & beans, river, wigwam, longhouse, bow & arrows, dugout canoe, fire
Farmers, water wheels, mills, river, barn, fenced pasture, cleared land, gardens, hoeing, fewer trees, water barrel, geese, rooster, guinea hens, turkey, pigs, cows, horses, sheep
Large stone and brick buildings, glass windows, stone walls, dam, aqueduct, river, chimneys, smoke, very few trees, workers inside
WHY did they come?
Fishing,
Planting, Trade,
River access to ocean
Land for farming,
Waterpower site,
Furs, Lumbering
Waterpower site,
Train routes, Turnpike roads,
Factory jobs
What IMPACT did they have on the land?
Cleared fields for planting,
Hunted and trapped animals and fish
Depleted forests,
Polluted streams and rivers,
Built enclosed fields and pastures,
Built houses, barns, mills, roads, bridges
Built dams, Diverted rivers
Built factories and cities,
Laid railroad tracks,
Built turnpikes and bridges
Polluted rivers and air
Journeys Hike Museum Program
Living Timeline Activity
Living Timeline: 20 minutes
Description of Activity:
Students will learn about the changing landscape of South Berwick by participating in a “living” timeline activity in which they organize and place themselves (using an historic identity) and the objects/artifacts associated with this person on a large timeline that will stretch across the room.
Materials needed:
Room-length timeline Identity cards
Timer Artifacts
Artifact Map Artifact information sheet
Introduction: 2 minutes
Throughout the last four centuries, people journeyed to South Berwick and transformed both the natural landscape and the built environment. They brought and made tools and goods to help them in their new lives. Some of their belongings remain here at the Counting House Museum for us to learn from and enjoy.
Time is a very hard concept for people to understand, so we designed this activity to help you and your classmates visualize exactly when people of South Berwick’s past lived in time. You and your partner will choose an identity card that will give you all of the information that you need to know about this person. Then you will choose an artifact that this person might have used when they walked this land.
Your job is to teach your class about your person, your artifact, and the time in which this person lived in South Berwick. You will have five minutes to choose your artifacts and the time period and to practice reading your lines. Be prepared to explain why you chose your artifact. Please stand with you partner now and we will come around to give you what you need. (Each partnership will pick an identity card and an artifact.)
During your practice times, you should rehearse what you will say to the group with your partner.
Preparation: 3 minutes
The partners will use the prep time to learn about and become comfortable with their identities and will then decide to which era they best belong. They will also choose an artifact from the OBHS education collection to learn about and will take it with them to the timeline. Information about each artifact is included in this packet, so please circulate and help students as they learn about themselves and their artifacts. At the
end of this time period, students will be prepared to share stories about themselves and their artifacts with the rest of their class.
(Volunteers will be circulating and helping the students whenever needed.)
Finding Your Time on the Living Timeline: 10 minutes
Activity Summary: Chosen by the lead volunteer, one partnership at a time will share with the group: Who they are, why they’re important to this era of South Berwick’s history, and why they chose their artifact. Upon completion, the class will guess which era they belong to, and then each partnership should place their artifact carefully on the appropriate place on the timeline and go sit down with the group. The group leader will enhance the discussion whenever necessary.
With your partner, please sit on the benches where you can see the timeline. I will call you up to the timeline when it’s your turn and you will teach the class about your person and artifact. At the end of your presentation, the class will use their powers as historians to decide to what era you belong. When they have chosen the correct era, you will go stand on that time on the timeline. When your role is finished, please carefully place your artifact in the correct place on the timeline and go back to your seat.
Are there any questions?
Identities:
Loop 1
Sagamore Roles 1650 - Beaver Pelt
Eliza Ann Barker 1820 – book of hymns
Deborah Brock 1835 - loom shuttle
William Furness 1800 - spyglass
William Cheney 1880 – coal scuttle
Eben Ford Nealley 1850 - tankard
Loop 2
Sarah Orne Jewett 1860 - horseshoe
Peter Pelletier 1910 - shoe last
William Cummings 1930 - pocket watch
Harry Ernest Adlington 1910 - signal lantern
Benjamin F. Davis 1862 - Union cap
Mark Addison Libbey 1910 - bicycle bell
Conclusion: 5 minutes
Children, silently stand up and with your partner, walk over to the line and stand behind your artifact. Look to your right and notice the people who lived here before your person made the journey to South Berwick.
What did you gain from the people who came before you?
How did they change this place that they lived in?
Discuss this by asking two or three characters to respond.
Look to your left and notice the people who lived here after your person made the journey to South Berwick.
What did you give to the people who came after you?
How did you change this place where they would live in the future?
Discuss this by asking two or three characters to respond.
What do many of these people have in common?
 They came because they found resources they needed here.
 They came because they could find work here.
 They came because their families or friends were here.
What do we have in common with many of these people from our town’s past?
Sagamore Roles
Wabanaki Indian Chief
Date: 1650
Indians came to the coast of Maine each spring to fish on the Salmon Falls River. They built a village at the fishing place, which they called Quamphegan: “quamp,” means “dip,” and “hegan,” means net.
Eliza Ann Barker
Music Teacher
Date: 1820
Eliza sailed upriver to South Berwick when she was 15 years old to teach singing at a local church. She taught music from popular hymn books, such as Divine Songs for Children.
Deborah Brock
Weaver
Date: 1835
Deborah lived on a farm about a mile from the cotton factory. She walked to work each day, arriving before the factory bell rang at 5:00 in the morning. The money she earned helped to support her family’s farm.
William Furness
Sea Captain
Date: 1800
William was captain of the ship Olive Branch. Once pirates attacked his ship off the coast of Spain, and the crew was taken to prison in Africa. After three long years, he returned home to South Berwick.
William Cheney
Boatman
Date: 1880
William was a boatman who steered gundalows that carried heavy cargo on rivers and bays. William brought boat loads of coal to South Berwick to heat homes and factories.
Eben Nealley
Tavern Keeper
Date: 1850
Eben owned a tavern called the Quamphegan House. The tavern welcomed travelers at the end of a long journey and offered them food, drink, and a place to rest.
Sarah Orne Jewett
Writer
Date: 1860
Sarah travelled by horse and carriage with her father, Doctor Jewett, to visit his patients. Later, Sarah became a writer and used her childhood memories of country rides in her stories.
Peter Pelletier
Shoe Buffer
Date: 1910
Peter came to South Berwick from Quebec, Canada, with his family, who were looking for work in local factories. Peter found work as a buffer, polishing the soles of shoes. His job was one of many needed to make a single pair of shoes.
Harry Adlington
Railroad Station Master
Date: 1910
Harry was the station master at Cummings Railroad Station in South Berwick. He sold tickets to passengers, signaled passing trains, and sent messages to other stations.
William Cummings
Factory Owner
Date: 1930
William Cummings was the owner of a shoe factory where hundreds of workers cut and sewed leather shoes. He worked at a desk in the factory office, managing the production and sale of finished shoes.
Benjamin Davis
Civil War Soldier
Date: 1862
As a young man, Benjamin worked as a tinsmith, like his father. But when he was 31 the Civil War began. Benjamin became a soldier, standing guard duty and driving supply wagons in Virginia.
Addison Libbey
Inventor
Date: 1910
Addison was an inventor who loved locomotion. He became the town’s first bicycle dealer, selling high-wheel bicycles from the machine shop he built next to his house.
Journeys Hike Museum Program
Timeline Activity Objects List
1) Sagamore Roles 1650: Beaver pelt
2) Eliza Ann Barker 1820: Hymn book
3) Deborah Brock 1835: Loom shuttle
4) William Furness 1800: Spyglass
5) William Cheney 1880: Coal scuttle
6) Eben Nealley 1850: Tankard
7) Sarah Orne Jewett 1860: Horseshoe
8) Peter Pelletier 1910: Shoe last
9) William Cummings 1930: Pocket watch
10) Harry Adlington 1910: Signal lantern
11) Benjamin F. Davis 1862: Union soldier’s cap
12) Addison Libbey 1910: Bicycle bell

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